December 6, 2023
Slack Center Pleistocene Levallois stone-machine technology in southwest China
AbstractLevallois approaches are one of the best known variants of prepared-core technologies, and are an important hallmark of stone technologies developed around 300,000 years ago in Africa and west Eurasia1,2. Existing archaeological evidence suggests that the stone technology of east Asian hominins lacked a Levallois component during the late Middle Pleistocene epoch and it is…


Levallois approaches are undoubtedly one of presumably the most tasty identified variants of ready-core applied sciences, and are a extraordinarily fundamental hallmark of stone applied sciences developed around 300,000 years prior to now in Africa and west Eurasia1,2. Present archaeological proof suggests that the stone technology of east Asian hominins lacked a Levallois ingredient for the length of the late Center Pleistocene epoch and it is not till the Slack Pleistocene (around forty,000–30,000 years prior to now) that this technology spread into east Asia in association with a dispersal of in model folk. Here we masks proof of Levallois technology from the lithic assemblage of the Guanyindong Cave location in southwest China, dated to approximately 170,000–eighty,000 years prior to now. To our knowledge, this is the earliest proof of Levallois technology in east Asia. Our findings thus enlighten the new model of the foundation and spread of Levallois applied sciences in east Asia and its hyperlinks to a Slack Pleistocene dispersal of in model folk.

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                                    Accumulate references


                                    This work was once supported by the Australian Compare Council through Future Fellowships to B.L. (FT140100384) and B.M. (FT140100101), a grant from the Nationwide Science Foundation of China to J.-F.Z. (NSFC, 41471003), postgraduate scholarships from the University of Wollongong to Y.H. and X.R. and the China Scholarship Council to X.R. (201506010345), the Chinese Academy of Science (CAS) Strategic Priority Compare Program Grants of ‘Macroevolutionary Processes and Paleoenvironments of Fundamental Historic Biota’ (XDPB05), Verbalize Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth Environment, CAS (SKLLQG1501) and Nationwide Science Foundation of China (41272033) to Y.-M.H. We thank S. Lin for support with artefact diagnosis and salubrious comments on the manuscript; Y.-M. Hou for support with CT scanning on stone artefacts; R. G. Roberts, Z. Jacobs, Y. Jafari and T. Lachlan for enhance and support in the OSL laboratory; M. Otte and P. Zhang for salubrious discussions on lithic assemblage; Y.-S. Lou, N. Ma, X.-W. Li and L. Lei for support with lithic observation.

                                    Reviewer knowledge

                                    Nature thanks C. A. Tryon and the a quantity of anonymous reviewer(s) for his or her contribution to the behold review of this work.

                                    Author knowledge


                                    1. Centre for Archaeological Science, College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Fresh South Wales, Australia

                                      • Yue Hu
                                      • , Ben Marwick
                                      • , Xue Rui
                                      •  & Bo Li
                                    2. Department of Anthropology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA

                                      • Ben Marwick
                                    3. MOE Laboratory for Earth Floor Processes, Department of Geography, Faculty of Metropolis and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, China

                                      • Jia-Fu Zhang
                                    4. Key Laboratory of Vertebrate Evolution and Human Origins, Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China

                                      • Ya-Mei Hou
                                      • , Jian-Ping Yue
                                      •  & Wei-Wen Huang
                                    5. CAS Centre for Excellence in Lifestyles and Paleo-atmosphere, Beijing, China

                                      • Ya-Mei Hou
                                      •  & Jian-Ping Yue
                                    6. Qianxi County Bureau of Cultural Relics Protection, Bijie, China

                                      • Wen-Rong Chen
                                    7. ARC Centre of Excellence for Australian Biodiversity and Heritage, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Fresh South Wales, Australia

                                      • Bo Li


                                    1. Uncover for Yue Hu in:

                                    2. Uncover for Ben Marwick in:

                                    3. Uncover for Jia-Fu Zhang in:

                                    4. Uncover for Xue Rui in:

                                    5. Uncover for Ya-Mei Hou in:

                                    6. Uncover for Jian-Ping Yue in:

                                    7. Uncover for Wen-Rong Chen in:

                                    8. Uncover for Wei-Wen Huang in:

                                    9. Uncover for Bo Li in:


                                    B.L., Y.H., W.-W.H. and J.-F.Z. conceived and coordinated the look; Y.H., B.M. and J.-P.Y. performed the stone artefact diagnosis; B.L., Y.H., J.-F.Z., W.-R.C., W.-W.H. and Y.-M.H. deliberate and directed field investigations and stratigraphic diagnosis. Y.H., B.L., J.-F.Z., X.R., W.-W.H. and Y.-M.H. soundless samples for courting; Y.H., B.L., J.-F.Z. and X.R. measured OSL samples and analysed the courting results; B.M., B.L. and Y.H. wrote the manuscript, with contributions from the a quantity of authors.

                                    Competing interests

                                    The authors expose no competing interests.

                                    Corresponding authors

                                    Correspondence to
                                    Ben Marwick or Bo Li.

                                    Extended data figures and tables

                                    1. Extended Recordsdata Fig. 1 Photography exhibiting the landscape and placement of the Guanyindong Cave.

                                      a, Southward watch of the Guanyindong Cave. b, The principle entrance of the cave.

                                    2. Extended Recordsdata Fig. 2 Conception watch and stratigraphy of the Guanyindong Cave.

                                      a, Conception watch of the cave, fundamental excavation space and the residual profiles from the south wall. The blue dots and the numbers next to every of the dots symbolize the locations of U-assortment courting samples were taken beforehand17 (glance Supplementary Recordsdata for discussion of the U-assortment results); sample codes from 1 to eight are QGC-19-1, QGC-19-2, QGC-Four, QGC-21, QGB-Four, QGC-7 and QGC-23, respectively. The inexperienced circles are the locations of profiles 1, 2a, 2b and Three. The red squares converse the locations of the residual profiles S1 and S2, the do the OSL samples were taken. b, Factor of the numbered stratigraphic layers at the first entrance of the cave. The stratigraphic layer numbers are shown in yellow circles. The red rectangles converse the locations of the two south-wall sections (S1 and S2) the do OSL samples were taken. The locations of OSL samples are shown in red circles, with the sample code shown interior (as an instance, no 1 represents GYD-OSL1; glance Extended Recordsdata Figs. Three, Four for added fundamental factors). a, b, Photography were adapted from a old look16, copyright 1986.

                                    3. Extended Recordsdata Fig. Three Normal watch of the residual profile S1 from the cave entrance.

                                      a, Portray taken from the internal of the cave, exhibiting the positioning of the residual profile S1 at the south wall (marked by a rectangle with fundamental factors shown in b and c). b, Portray exhibiting fundamental factors of the residual profile S1 at the south wall and the positioning of all OSL samples from layer 1 and layers Four–eight. The fundamental factors of layers Three–9 contained in the yellow rectangle are shown in c. c, Portray exhibiting the fundamental factors of sedimentary layers Three–9 of neighborhood B, and the positioning of OSL samples. The stratigraphic layer numbers are shown in blue circles and the positioning of OSL samples are marked by yellow circles with sample names shown next to every of them. The dashed yellow strains in b and c converse the boundaries between the layers.

                                    4. Extended Recordsdata Fig. Four Normal watch of the residual profile S2 commence air the cave entrance.

                                      a, Portray taken from prime of the cave, exhibiting the positioning of the residual profile S2 (indicated by the rectangle). b, Portray taken from commence air the cave, exhibiting the positioning of the residual profile S2 (indicated by the rectangle). c, Portray exhibiting the fundamental factors of sedimentary layers (layer 2 and transformed layer 1) of residual profile S2, and the positioning of OSL samples. The dashed yellow line displays the boundary between layers 1 and a pair of. The stratigraphic layer numbers are shown in blue circles and the positioning of OSL samples are marked by yellow circles with sample names shown next to every of them.

                                    5. Extended Recordsdata Fig. 5 Photos of selected Levallois cores.

                                      a, d, f, Levallois recurrent cores. b, c, e, Levallois preferential cores. The line drawings of these artefacts are shown in Fig. 3a–f. The artefacts shown in b and c were recovered from neighborhood A.

                                    6. Extended Recordsdata Fig. 6 Photos of selected Levallois flakes and instruments.

                                      gokay, n, Levallois flakes. l, Débordant. m, Instruments made on Levallois blanks. o, p, Pseudo-Levallois factors. The line drawings of these artefacts are shown in Fig. 3g–p.

                                    7. Extended Recordsdata Fig. 7 Photos of selected Levallois instruments and flakes with ready platform.

                                      qs, Instruments made on Levallois blanks. tz, Flakes with ready platforms. The line drawings of these artefacts are shown in Fig. 3q–z. The artefact shown in q was once recovered from neighborhood A, and these shown in r and s were from neighborhood B.

                                    8. Extended Recordsdata Fig. eight Distributions of metric variables on flakes.

                                      a, Histogram of flake lengths, coloured by size class. b, Box-and-whisker plots of a assortment of metric variables to converse technological variation across the size classes to issue the lithic prick payment sequence (n = 1,177 flakes). Centre strains converse data median, boxes converse first and 1/Three quartiles (the 25th and 75th percentiles), and the whiskers lengthen from the upper and decrease hinge to the biggest and smallest values that typically are no additional than 1.5 instances the interquartile differ from the hinge (which is the distance between the first and 1/Three quartiles). Recordsdata beyond the pause of the whiskers are outlying factors and are plotted for my piece. Linear dimensions are measured in mm, mass in g.

                                    9. Extended Recordsdata Fig. 9 Distributions of technological attributes of flakes across the 5 size classes.

                                      n = 1,177 flakes.

                                    10. Extended Recordsdata Fig. 10 Comparability of flakes from the upper (neighborhood A) and decrease (neighborhood B) layers of the deposit (n = 204), with 117 items from the decrease layers (dated to 170–160 ka) and 87 from the upper layer (dated to approximately ninety–eighty ka).

                                      a, Metric variables. Linear dimensions are measured in mm, mass in g. b, Technological variables. Centre strains converse data median, boxes converse first and 1/Three quartiles (the 25th and 75th percentiles), and the whiskers lengthen from the upper and decrease hinge to the biggest and smallest values no additional than 1.5 instances the interquartile differ from the hinge. Recordsdata beyond the pause of the whiskers are outlying factors and are plotted for my piece.

                                    Supplementary knowledge

                                    1. Supplementary Recordsdata

                                      This file contains Supplementary Discussions, Supplementary Tables 1-5, Supplementary Figures 1-24, References, and Supplementary Recordsdata.

                                    2. Reporting Abstract

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