December 1, 2023
Caracas (Reuters) - In April 2008, former Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez dispatched Justice Ministry officials to visit counterparts in the Chinese technology hub of Shenzhen. Their mission, according to a member of the Venezuela delegation, was to learn the workings of China’s national identity card program. Chavez, a decade into his self-styled socialist revolution, wanted…

Caracas (Reuters) – In April 2008, used Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez dispatched Justice Ministry officials to focus on with counterparts in the Chinese expertise hub of Shenzhen. Their mission, in line with a member of the Venezuela delegation, became to be taught the workings of China’s nationwide identity card program.

Chavez, a decade into his self-styled socialist revolution, wished relieve to win ID credentials to the hundreds and hundreds of Venezuelans who quiet lacked standard documentation wanted for duties adore vote casting or opening a financial institution fable. Once in Shenzhen, though, the Venezuelans realized a card can also raise out a long way larger than upright title the recipient.

There, on the headquarters of Chinese telecom big ZTE Corp, they realized how China, the use of smooth cards, became setting up a device that can per chance per chance relieve Beijing song social, political and economic behavior. The use of big databases to retailer knowledge gathered with the card’s use, a authorities can also computer screen the complete thing from a citizen’s private price range to scientific historic previous and vote casting yelp.

“What we seen in China modified the complete thing,” said the member of the Venezuelan delegation, technical consultant Anthony Daquin. His initial amazement, he said, step by step became to misfortune that this form of device can also outcome in abuses of privateness by Venezuela’s authorities. “They were having a ogle to absorb citizen administration.”

The next year, when he raised concerns with Venezuelan officials, Daquin suggested Reuters, he became detained, beaten and extorted by intelligence agents. They knocked plenty of enamel out with a handgun and accused him of treasonous behavior, Daquin said, prompting him to wing the country.

Government spokespeople had no drawl on Daquin’s fable.

The mission languished.

Nonetheless 10 years after the Shenzhen time out, Venezuela is rolling out a brand new, smooth-card ID identified because the “carnet de la patria,” or “fatherland card.” The ID transmits records about cardholders to laptop servers. The card is increasingly linked by the authorities to subsidized meals, health and numerous social programs most Venezuelans rely on to continue to exist.

And ZTE, whose characteristic in the fatherland mission is detailed right here for the first time, is on the coronary heart of this device.

As segment of a $70 million authorities effort to bolster “nationwide security,” Venezuela remaining year hired ZTE to invent a fatherland database and make a mobile price device to be used with the card, in line with contracts reviewed by Reuters.

A team of ZTE employees is now embedded in a fresh unit within Cantv, the Venezuelan inform telecommunications firm that manages the database, in line with four fresh and used Cantv employees.

The fatherland card is troubling some voters and human-rights teams who factor in it is a long way a tool for Chavez’s successor, President Nicolas Maduro, to computer screen the populace and allocate scarce sources to his loyalists.

“It’s blackmail,” Hector Navarro, one in every of the founders of the ruling Socialist Celebration and a used minister beneath Chavez, said of the fatherland program. “Venezuelans with the cards now absorb more rights than these without.”

In a phone interview, Su Qingfeng, the head of ZTE’s Venezuela unit, confirmed ZTE sold Caracas servers for the database and is setting up the mobile price application. The firm, he said, violated no Chinese or local laws and has no characteristic in how Venezuela collects or uses cardholder records.

“We don’t give a capture to the authorities,” he said. “We are upright setting up our market.”

An economic meltdown in Venezuela is causing hyperinflation, standard shortages of meals and medicines, and a rising exodus of determined voters. Maduro has been sanctioned by the US and is criticized by governments from France to Canada as increasingly autocratic.

In that, critics speak, Maduro has an ally. The fatherland card, they argue, illustrates how China, thru inform-linked companies adore ZTE, exports technological technology that can per chance relieve adore-minded governments song, reward and punish voters.

The database, in line with employees of the card device and screenshots of person records reviewed by Reuters, stores such little print as birthdays, family knowledge, employment and earnings, property owned, scientific historic previous, inform benefits obtained, presence on social media, membership of a political event and whether a person voted.

To this level, the authorities’s disclosure of ZTE’s involvement in the fatherland mission has been restricted to a passing reference in a February 2017 press free up that credited the firm with serving to to “beef up” the underlying database.

Venezuela’s authorities didn’t reply to requests for drawl for this text. Nadia Perez, a spokeswoman for Cantv, the inform-speed telecoms agency, declined to drawl and Manuel Fernandez, the firm’s president, didn’t reply to emails or textual assert material messages from Reuters. China’s Justice Ministry and its embassy in Caracas didn’t reply to requests for drawl.

Even supposing ZTE is publicly traded, a Chinese inform firm is its ideal shareholder and the authorities is a key shopper. ZTE has speed afoul of Washington earlier than for dealings with authoritarian governments.

The firm this year paid $1 billion to determine on with the U.S. Commerce Department, one in every of somewhat a lot of penalties after ZTE shipped telecommunications instruments to Iran and North Korea, violating U.S. sanctions and export laws. The Commerce action became sparked by a 2012 Reuters mumble that ZTE sold Iran a surveillance device, which incorporated U.S. ingredients, to ogle on telecommunications by its voters.

Upright experts in the US said it is unclear whether ZTE and numerous companies that provide the fatherland device are violating U.S. sanctions on Venezuelan leaders by providing instruments that critics factor in toughen the authorities’s grip on vitality.

Fernandez, the Cantv president, is one in every of the targets of these sanctions because of of the telecom firm’s censorship of the online in Venezuela, in line with a U.S. Treasury Department observation. Nonetheless the prohibitions up to now are intended essentially to thwart alternate with Maduro and numerous prime officials themselves, no longer standard commerce in Venezuela.

Tranquil, U.S. lawmakers and numerous critics of Maduro’s rule are bearing in mind about ZTE’s characteristic in Venezuela. “China is in the alternate of exporting its authoritarianism,” U.S. Senator Marco Rubio suggested Reuters in an electronic mail. “The Maduro regime’s rising reliance on ZTE in Venezuela is upright the most up-to-date instance of the threat that Chinese inform-directed companies pose to U.S. nationwide security interests.”

To heed how the fatherland card works and how it got right here to be, Reuters reviewed confidential contracts and internal authorities documents linked to its pattern. Reporters also interviewed dozens of fresh and used employees of ZTE, Venezuela’s authorities and Cantv, or Compania Anonima Nacional Telefonos de Venezuela, because the firm is formally identified.

They confirmed little print of the mission and the outlines of Daquin’s fable of its origins.


Maduro for the previous year has suggested voters to be half of the new card, calling it principal to “invent the new Venezuela.” As many as 18 million individuals, over 1/2 the inhabitants, already absorb, in line with authorities figures.

“With this card, we are going to withhold out the complete thing to any extent extra,” Maduro said on inform tv remaining December.

To reduction its adoption, the authorities has granted cash prizes to cardholders for performing civic duties, adore rallying voters. It has also given one-time payouts, such as awarding moms enrolled in the card a Mom’s Day bonus of about $2. The associated price, remaining Can also simply, became simply about a month-to-month minimal wage – enough to bewitch a carton of eggs, given the fresh slither of inflation.

Maduro will likely be taking steps to force the card’s adoption. The authorities now says Venezuelans need it to acquire public benefits along with medication, pensions, meals baskets and subsidized gasoline. In August, retirees protested outside social security locations of work and complained the fatherland rule limits win entry to to laborious-won pensions.

Benito Urrea, a Seventy six-year-venerable diabetic, suggested Reuters a inform doctor unbiased no longer too prolonged ago denied him an insulin prescription and known as him “lawful soar” because of he hasn’t enrolled. Love some assorted Venezuelan voters, in particular these that oppose the Maduro administration, Urrea sees the card with suspicion.

“It became an are attempting to manipulate me thru my wants,” Urrea said in his Caracas apartment. Reuters became unable to contact the doctor.

The use of the servers purchased from ZTE, the authorities is setting up a database some voters misfortune is identifying Venezuelans who give a capture to the authorities and these that don’t.

Among the determining, such as health records, is gathered with card usage. Some is obtained when voters brand up. Cardholders and native human rights teams suggested Reuters that administrators put a ask to questions about earnings, political activities and social media profiles earlier than issuing the card.

Civil servants are going thru particular stress to enroll, in line with larger than a dozen inform employees.

When scanning their cards all the device thru a presidential election remaining Can also simply, employees at plenty of authorities locations of work were suggested by bosses to message images of themselves at polls abet to managers, they said. A Justice Ministry doc reviewed by Reuters featured a listing of inform employees who didn’t vote.

After Chavez grew to grow to be president in 1999, he sought to empower “invisible” Venezuelans who couldn’t win entry to conventional products and companies. In the following years, more voters obtained documentation, however the cards were fragile and without issues cast, in line with a 2007 Justice Ministry mumble.

The mumble, reviewed by Reuters, suggested a brand new, microchip-enabled card that can per chance be tougher to fake. No such effort got underway.

That December, after simply about a decade of soaring recognition, Chavez suffered his first electoral defeat, shedding a referendum to scrap term limits. Oil prices plummeted presently thereafter, hammering the economy.

Chavez labored to assuage his working-class base, along with throngs quiet lacking identity credentials. He despatched Daquin, the tip knowledge security consultant on the Justice Ministry, to China.

The expertise Daquin and colleagues realized about in Shenzhen underpinned what would grow to be China’s “Social Credit ranking Machine.”

The quiet-evolving device, segment of which uses “smooth citizen cards” developed by ZTE, grades voters essentially essentially based totally on behavior along with financial solvency and political yelp. Moral behavior can invent voters discounts on utilities or loans. Spoiled marks can win them banned from public transport or their formative years blocked from prime colleges.

FILE PHOTO: An identification card is checked at a “Crimson Level,” an home home up by President Nicolas Maduro’s event to verify that individuals cast their votes, all the device thru the presidential election in Caracas, Venezuela, Can also simply 20, 2018. REUTERS/Marco Bello/File Photograph

ZTE executives confirmed the Venezuelans smooth cards embedded with radio-frequency identification, or RFID, a expertise that lets in monitors thru radio waves to trace inform and records. Other cards used so-known as Quickly Response, or QR, codes, the matrix barcodes now typically used to retailer and course of knowledge.

After the time out, Venezuela became to Cuba, its closest ally, and requested for relieve setting up its absorb model of RFID cards. “The new aim became Substantial Data,” Daquin said.

In June 2008, Venezuela agreed to pay a Cuban inform firm $172 million to develop six million of the cards, in line with a duplicate of the contract. Cuban authorities officials didn’t reply to questions in regards to the agreement.

By 2009, Daquin grew uneasy in regards to the aptitude for abuses of voters’ privateness.

He expressed these concerns to officials along with Vladimir Padrino, a day by day on the time and now Venezuela’s protection minister. The Defense Ministry didn’t reply to phone calls, emails or a letter presented by Reuters for drawl.

On the morning of Nov. 12, at his local Caracas bakery, six armed officials in uniforms of Venezuela’s nationwide intelligence agency awaited Daquin, he suggested Reuters.

They confirmed him images of his daughter and compelled him to force east toward the metropolis of Guatire. Off a abet avenue, Daquin said, they beat him with pistols, compelled a handgun into his mouth and dislodged plenty of enamel, quiet missing.

“Why are you betraying the revolution?” one requested.

They demanded $A hundred,000 for his free up, Daquin said.

Daquin, who says he had been saving for years to bewitch property, went home, pulled cash from a obtain and delivered it to the men. That evening, he booked a flight for himself, his vital other and their three formative years to the US, the keep he has lived since, working as an knowledge security consultant.

His brother, Guy, who also lives in the US, confirmed Daquin’s fable. Documentation reviewed by Reuters corroborates his characteristic on the ministry, and individuals mindful of Daquin’s work confirmed his involvement in the card mission.

After Daquin fled, the Cuban contract went nowhere, in line with every other used consultant.

In March 2013, Chavez died. Maduro, his inheritor as Socialist Celebration candidate, became elected president the subsequent month. The lingering oil wreck dragged Venezuela into recession.


With starvation rising, the authorities in 2016 launched a program to distribute subsidized meals packages. It hired Soltein SA de CV, a firm essentially essentially based mostly in Mexico, to form an on-line platform to trace them, in line with documents reviewed by Reuters. The platform became the beginning of the database now used for the fatherland device.

Soltein’s directors, in line with LinkedIn profiles, are largely used Cuban inform employees. A one who answered a phone listed for Soltein denied the agency labored on the fatherland device. A lady on the firm’s registered tackle in the resort metropolis of Cancun suggested Reuters she had without a doubt no longer heard of Soltein.

The device labored. Almost Ninety p.c of the country’s residents now obtain the meals packages, in line with a search printed in February by Andres Bello Catholic University and two assorted universities.

Now more gay with its skill to trace handouts, the authorities sought to know more in regards to the recipients, in line with individuals lively on the mission. So it became abet to ZTE.

The Chinese firm, now in Venezuela for roughly a decade, has over A hundred employees working in two flooring of a Caracas skyscraper. It first labored with Cantv, the telecommunications firm, to enable tv programming on-line.

Love many inform enterprises in Venezuela, Cantv has grown starved for funding. ZTE grew to grow to be a key partner, taking up many tasks that once would absorb fallen to Cantv itself, individuals mindful of each companies said.

ZTE helps the authorities invent six emergency response centers monitoring Venezuela’s indispensable cities, in line with a 2015 press free up. In 2016, ZTE began centralizing video surveillance for the authorities all the device in which thru the country, in line with fresh and used employees.

In its remaining push for the fatherland cards, the authorities no longer regarded as RFID, in line with individuals mindful of the trouble. The positioning-monitoring expertise became too costly.

As an change, it requested ZTE for relieve with QR codes, the shadowy-and-white squares smartphone users can scan to win directed to net net pages. ZTE developed the codes, at a stamp of no longer up to $three per fable, and the authorities printed the cards, linking them to the Soltein database, these individuals said.

In a phone name with Reuters in September, Su, the head of ZTE’s Venezuela alternate, confirmed the firm’s card tackle Cantv. He declined to acknowledge follow-up questions.

Maduro launched the cards in December 2016. In a televised tackle, he held one up, thanked China for lending unspecified give a capture to and said “all individuals should always win one.”

The ID device, quiet working on the Soltein platform, hadn’t but migrated to ZTE servers. Pains soon struck. In Can also simply 2017, hackers broke into the fatherland database.

The hack became utilized by anonymous anti-Maduro activists identified as TeamHDP. The team’s leader, Twitter tackle @YoSoyJustincito, said the hack became “extremely easy” and motivated by TeamHDP’s mission to repeat Maduro secrets.

The hacker, who spoke to Reuters by textual assert material message, declined to be acknowledged and said he’s no longer in Venezuela. A Cantv supervisor who later helped migrate the database to ZTE servers confirmed little print of the breach.

All the device thru the hack, TeamHDP took screenshots of person records and deleted the accounts of authorities officials, along with Maduro. The president later regarded on tv scanning his card and receiving an error message: “This person doesn’t exist.”

Screenshots of the determining embedded in assorted card accounts, shared by TeamHDP with Reuters, incorporated phone numbers, emails, home addresses, participation at Socialist Celebration events and even whether a person owns a pet. People mindful of the database said the screenshots appear noble.

Shortly after the hack, Maduro signed a $70 million contract with Cantv and a inform financial institution for “nationwide security” tasks. These incorporated pattern of a “centralized fatherland database” and a mobile app to course of funds, such because the discounted stamp of a subsidized meals box, linked to the card.

“Imperialist and unpatriotic factions absorb tried to damage the nation’s security,” the contract reads.

It says an undisclosed fragment of the funding would near from the Venezuela China Joint Fund, a bilateral financing program. A linked contract, also reviewed by Reuters, assigns the database and price app tasks to ZTE. The doc doesn’t uncover how essential of the $70 million would skedaddle to the Chinese firm.

ZTE declined to drawl on financial little print of its alternate in Venezuela. Neither the Venezuelan nor the Chinese authorities replied to Reuters queries in regards to the contracts.

In July 2017, Soltein transferred ownership of fatherland records to Cantv, mission documents repeat. A team of a dozen ZTE builders began bolstering the database’s skill and security, fresh and used Cantv employees said.

Amongst assorted measures, ZTE installed records storage items constructed by U.S.-essentially essentially based mostly Dell Applied sciences Inc, in line with one ZTE doc. Dell spokeswoman Lauren Lee said ZTE is a consumer in China but that Dell doesn’t sell instruments to ZTE in Venezuela. She said Dell reviewed its transactions in Venezuela and wasn’t attentive to any sale to Cantv, either.

“Dell is committed to compliance with all appropriate laws the keep we offer out alternate,” Lee said in an electronic mail. “We put a question to our customers, companions and suppliers to follow these identical laws.”

In Can also simply, Venezuela held elections that were broadly discredited by foreign governments after Maduro banned plenty of opposition parties.

Earlier than the vote, ruling event officials suggested voters to be “grateful” for authorities largesse distributed thru the fatherland cards. They home up “crimson level” kiosks near vote casting booths, the keep voters can also scan their cards and register, Maduro himself promised, for a “fatherland prize.”

Those that scanned their cards later obtained a textual assert material message thanking them for supporting Maduro, in line with plenty of cardholders and one textual assert material message reviewed by Reuters. The prizes for vote casting, then again, were without a doubt no longer issued, cardholders and individuals mindful of the device said.

Recent and used Cantv employees speak the database registers if, but no longer how, a person voted. Tranquil, some voters were led to think in regards to the authorities would know. The realization is having a chilling raise out.

One organizer of a meals handout committee in the west-central metropolis of Barinas said authorities managers had suggested her and colleagues to repeat recipients their votes will likely be tracked. “We’ll discover if you happen to voted for or towards,” she said she suggested them.

Instruct employees speak they are a procedure.

An internal Cantv presentation from remaining year said the device can feed knowledge from the database to ministries to relieve “generate statistics and win decisions.” After the vote, authorities locations of work along with Banco Bicentenario del Pueblo, a inform financial institution, despatched Cantv lists with employees’ names to determine on whether they had voted, in line with the supervisor who helped home up the servers.

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Banco Bicentenario didn’t reply to a put a question to for drawl. Officers on the Economy Ministry, which the financial institution reports to, didn’t reply to requests, either.

With private records now so on hand, some voters misfortune they’ll lose larger than upright their jobs, said Mariela Magallanes, an opposition lawmaker who headed a commission that remaining year investigated how the fatherland card became being linked to the subsidized meals program.

The authorities, the commission said in a mumble, is depriving some voters of the meals boxes because of they don’t just like the card. “The authorities is aware of precisely who’s most at threat of stress,” she said.

Extra reporting by Adam Jourdan in Shanghai, Ben Blanchard in Beijing, Eric Auchard in London, Sarah Marsh in Havana, Ivan Alonso in Cancun, Christine Murray in Mexico Metropolis, Francisco Aguilar in Barinas, and Andreina Aponte in Caracas; Editing by Paulo Prada